Tips on Paraphrasing Paraphrasing can be tricky. APA Paraphrase Citation with Correct and Wrong Examples. When paraphrasing, you must still acknowledge where you got the idea from by including a parenthetical citation. Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source material into your own words. Once you finish writing your paper, go through it and place a mark next to each reference on your reference list that appears in an in-text citation. American Psychological Association (APA) style uses an author-date format for parenthetical citations in the body of your paper. Cite after every sentence with a quote or paraphrase. For example, if the original source uses the word "feline," changing that word to "cat" won't necessarily help improve your paraphrase. You may either use the author-date format, similar to APA style, or you may have footnotes and a bibliography. Remember though, you must still cite your source using author name and page number: Author Incorporated into Text. By using our site, you agree to our. For most common citation styles, sources are listed in alphabetical order by the first word in the full citation (usually the author's last name). It is also recommended (but not required) that you include the page number. Check your style guide to be sure. Paraphrases should sound like you, using vocabulary and sentence structures that your reader would recognize as your work. Some citation styles, however, require the citation immediately after the paraphrased information, even if that happens to be in the middle of a sentence. After you've changed the structure of the original passage, go back to the source and underline all phrases in your paraphrase that are identical to the original. When you paraphrase, you keep the same meaning of the original text, but you use different words and phrasing to convey that meaning, and you cite the information using an in-text citation in the expected formatting style (APA, MLA, etc.) There are two ways of delivering such in-text citations. Example sentence with signal phrase, APA style: Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199). Paraphrases should sound like you, using vocabulary and sentence structures that your reader would recognize as your work. You can also use this format to indicate several sources with more information about a topic that is related to your topic, but beyond the scope of your research. Try to avoid looking at the source at all while you're writing. In rare instances, you may need to include a source in your references that you never cited in the text of your paper. https://pr.princeton.edu/pub/integrity/pages/cite/, https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/mla_style/mla_formatting_and_style_guide/mla_in_text_citations_the_basics.html, http://holyfamily.libguides.com/c.php?g=610218&p=4236581, http://liu.cwp.libguides.com/c.php?g=45846&p=291624, https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/reference_list_basic_rules.html, http://nob.cs.ucdavis.edu/classes/ecs015-2007-02/paper/citations.html, https://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/QPA_paraphrase2.html, https://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/QPA_paraphrase.html, consider supporting our work with a contribution to wikiHow. Look at the original passage after you've finished your paraphrase to ensure your wording is sufficiently different. You can use a thesaurus to find alternate words, but stay away from direct synonyms. To paraphrase correctly: Sum up the main idea(s) of the author's argument using your own words and sentence structure. If you're citing a video or audio recording that has a runtime, include the timestamp range for the specific material you're quoting. before page numbers. A paraphrase may continue for several sentences. Every day at wikiHow, we work hard to give you access to instructions and information that will help you live a better life, whether it's keeping you safer, healthier, or improving your well-being. Modern Language Association (MLA) style uses an author-page number format for parenthetical citations in the body of your paper. If you compile the list before you start writing, the writing process will be less disjointed, and you'll run less of a risk of leaving something off. Paraphrasing from One Page. You generally don't have to include full citations to such sources in your reference list. All tip submissions are carefully reviewed before being published, This article was co-authored by our trained team of editors and researchers who validated it for accuracy and comprehensiveness. However, APA and others do. When citing paraphrased information, APA requires you to include the author and date. Try to change as many of these as possible. Look over the rules before you start building your reference list, especially if you're using a different style for the first time. Please consider making a contribution to wikiHow today. X For example, suppose your source says "Students have difficulty with new citation styles, usually because they didn't buy a copy of the style guide or ask their instructors enough questions." wikiHow's. A block quote only requires one citation, at the very end. Type a sentence paraphrasing from the source, then add your own thoughts or analysis of that information in the next sentence. The mental process required for successful paraphrasing helps you to grasp the full meaning of the original.
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