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It is formed by attaching the subject prefix to the suffix -ngali. The genitive preposition -a (sometimes termed a "connector", "possessive" or "associative" preposition) has a similar role to that of the genitive case of some other languages. Relatives are relativised verbs which can be used as adjectives. Some speakers may use the extension -ku- with -ja-. Animate nouns (referring to a person or animal) are an exception and these occur with concords of the noun classes 1 (singular) or 2 (plural). It may occur in the same contexts as other nouns and may, occasionally, even be derived into the locative classes by means of attaching the suffix -ni, as in kuangukani "in falling" (i.e. However, unlike the prefixes of nouns, verbal prefixes are not a fixed part of the verb, but indicate subject, object, tense, aspect, moodand other inflectional categories. It is also used as a complement to certain auxiliary verbs and conjunctions. It may also on occasion be used on its own, with a function more or less equivalent to the perfect -me-. The genitive pronominal forms -angu, -ako, -ake, -etu, -enu and -ao are frequently inflected with a group of nouns referring to close human relationships with their appropriate class 9/10 concords, regardless of the fact that they are animate (giving yangu, yako, yetu etc. The classes 5, 9 and 10 are frequently without any prefix[clarification needed]. Diminutives as well as the words for many man-made tools and languages are in class 7/8. In their infinitive form, they consist of three or more syllables and end with -a. A common mnemonic used by learners of Swahili for the order of parts of a verb is STROVE. We will first learn about prepositions, negation, questions,adverbs, and pronouns including: personal, object and possessive pronouns. In Swahili,nouns are divided into 11 classes mainly following the syntax rules. / "I told him he should go. The perfect is formed in the positive with the prefix -me-. Welcome to the 8th lesson about Swahili grammar. Animacy agreements can often distinguish different meanings of the same noun, such as ndege, which means "bird(s)" when animate and "aeroplane(s)" when inanimate. The subjunctive is indicated by the lack of any Tense-Aspect-Mood prefix and the change of the final -a, where present, to -e-. It indicates the possessor, or a more general association, and roughly corresponds in meaning to the English preposition "of". We will start with prepositions. Short verbs have no preceding vowel so have to be learnt individually. The demonstratives may stand alone, as true pronouns, but may also be used in combination with a noun, much like "this" and "that" in English. For example, wapo means essentially "they are here/there", wako means "they are around here/there" and wamo means "they are in here/there". In learner materials, the mediopassive suffix generally erroneously described as the "stative extension" despite the fact that the resulting verbs do not generally fulfil the requirements stative: namely that they describe unchanging states. / "I told him he should not go.". The presence of an object prefix (including the reflexive ji-) causes the final -a of Bantu verbs to become -e. Note that the ji- prefix of reflexive verbs is an object prefix, meaning, for example, that the imperative of -jifunza "to learn" is jifunze "learn!" The numerals -moja "one", -wili "two", -tatu "three", -nne "four", -tano "five" and -nane "eight", as well as all numbers that end with these words, take prefixes as inflecting adjectives do. Of those that begin with a vowel, almost all of these have stems that begin with either e (for example, -ekundu "red") or i (e.g. In terms of meaning, groups of similar nouns tend to belong to similar noun classes. Here is a list of the most common ones: I think it's better to put the above example in a sentence to better assist you. ", "If I don't have any money, we will have a problem. It should, however, be noted that the term infix, as used by linguists, refers only to a morpheme (≈ part of a word) that is inserted within another morpheme, not simply in between other morphemes within a word. in singular and zangu, zako, zetu etc. Swahili is a pro-drop language: explicit personal pronouns are only used for emphasis, or with verb forms that do not indicate subject or object. Swahili may be described in several ways depending on the aspect being considered. Both the irrealis forms are used to discuss hypothetical situations, generally within conditional sentences. For example, nouns for people, including agent nouns, are commonly in classes 1/2, while animals are often in classes 9/10. It corresponds to the English infinitive or gerund. Verbs whose ending in one of the front vowels plus a, (i.e. )", "SWAHILI AS A TENSE PROMINENT LANGUAGE. We will start with prepositions. They're very easy to learn. The perfect -me- here indicates that one is concerned with the state after the dynamic process. The term "adjective", as applied to Swahili and most other Bantu languages, usually applies only to a rather restricted set of words. Pronouns behave in many ways like nouns, having both plural and singular forms, being present in the full range of noun classes but no inflection for case, meaning that, for instance, there is no difference between we and us, which are both sisi.

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