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Later, under the Empire, the family of the deceased also wore dark colors for a long period; then, after a banquet to mark the end of mourning, exchanged the black for a white toga. Black ink was used for printing books, because it provided the greatest contrast with the white paper and was the clearest and easiest color to read. In Finland, black is the symbolic color for both armoured troops and combat engineers, and military units of these specialities have black flags and unit insignia. In Protestant doctrine, clothing was required to be sober, simple and discreet. Light (electromagnetic radiation in the visible spectrum) interacts with the atoms and molecules, which causes the energy of the light to be converted into other forms of energy, usually heat. For example, the Wall Street Crash of 1929, the stock market crash on October 29, 1929, which marked the start of the Great Depression, is nicknamed Black Tuesday, and was preceded by Black Thursday, a downturn on October 24 the previous week. This created magnificent red figures against a glossy black background. Cennini also noted that "There is another black which is made from burnt almond shells or peaches and this is a perfect, fine black. The riot control units of the Basque Autonomous Police in Spain are known as beltzak ("blacks") after their uniform. (See the section political movements.). It then spread to France, led by Louis I, Duke of Orleans, younger brother of King Charles VI of France. The black belt in martial arts symbolizes experience, while a white belt is worn by novices. As with many outfits, black in the piece is used to contrast against lighter colors. These included telephones, sewing machines, steamships, railroad locomotives, and automobiles. The Lascaux Cave in France contains drawings of bulls and other animals drawn by paleolithic artists between 18,000 and 17,000 years ago. [22], In the Protestant Netherlands, Rembrandt used this sober new palette of blacks and browns to create portraits whose faces emerged from the shadows expressing the deepest human emotions. To be in black-and-white, meaning in writing or in print, is from 1650s (white-and-black is from 1590s); the notion is of black characters on white paper. If appropriate proportions of three primary pigments are mixed, the result reflects so little light as to be called "black". Ater has vanished from the vocabulary, but niger was the source of the country name Nigeria,[10] the English word Negro, and the word for "black" in most modern Romance languages (French: noir; Spanish and Portuguese: negro; Italian: nero; Romanian: negru). The American crow is one of the most intelligent of all animals. He did so because a black tuxedo looked greenish in artificial light, while a dark blue tuxedo looked blacker than black itself.[90]. Goth fashion was inspired by British Victorian mourning costumes. When the pot was fired, the figures painted with the slip would turn black, against a red background. Swiss theologian John Calvin denounced the bright colors worn by Roman Catholic priests, and colorful decoration of churches. Soviet and Russian OMON special police and Russian naval infantry wear a black beret. More distant cognates include Latin flagrare ("to blaze, glow, burn"), and Ancient Greek phlegein ("to burn, scorch"). Especially "to clean and polish (boots, shoes, etc.) In 1960, John F. Kennedy was the last American President to be inaugurated wearing formal dress; President Lyndon Johnson and all his successors were inaugurated wearing business suits. In Medieval paintings, the devil was usually depicted as having human form, but with wings and black skin or hair. [84], Black is also commonly used as a racial description in the United Kingdom, since ethnicity was first measured in the 2001 census. Ivory black or bone char, a natural black pigment made by burning animal bones.

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